The future of one of the UK’s favourite dishes may be uncertain due to food shortages caused by Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
The ongoing conflict has led to a shortage of four key ingredients and forced fish and chip outlets to raise prices or change their menus.
The National Federation of Fish Friers (NFFF) has said that a shortage of sunflower oil, cod and haddock, and potatoes could see a third of fish and chips shops close.
It is the latest product to be hit by the conflict, as the war has seen a knock-on effect on many major supplies. It comes just after supermarkets imposed a restriction on the amount of sunflower oil, due to the supply chain being disrupted since Russia invaded Ukraine.
The NFFF said 50% of oil used by UK fish and chip outlets comes from Ukraine - with alternatives such as rapeseed and palm oil becoming more expensive, while up to 40% of cod and haddock comes from Russia, with sanctions hitting North Sea supplies. Meanwhile, fertiliser for potatoes - mainly from Russia - has tripled in price, while Russia also provides much of the flour used to make batter.
Many fish and chip shop operators are being forced to diversify their stock range - adding lesser-known fish to the menu, like hake - to offer customers affordable meals.